• built between 19 - 11 B. C.

  • large rectangular building
    • 121 x 107 yards
    • open courtyard in center
    • surrounded by stoas, shops, and storerooms

  • funded by Julius Caesar and Augustus
    • according to inscription on the architrave of the Gate of Athena Archegetis (“Athena the Leader”)

  • was paved with slabs during the reign of Hadrian (A. D. 117 - 138)

  • became the main administrative and commercial center of Athens
    • after the Herulians sacked the city in A. D. 267

  • excavation, by the Greek Archaeological Society, started in 1837
    • private homes and other buildings on the site had to be destroyed

  • excavation not yet complete

The Gate of Athena Archegetis in Athens and the Roman Agora seen from the West, Ludwig Lange.
Oil on canvas, 1842.

Site Plan of the Roman Agora

  1. perimeter of columns
  2. main entrance—Gate of Athena Archegetis
    • the west propylon
  3. east propylon (another entrance)
  4. Horologion
  5. toilets
    • commissioned by Vespasian
      • Roman emperor (A. D. 69 - 79)
  6. Agoranomeion (perhaps)
    • offices of market officials
    • built in middle of first century A. D.
    • much of the building is under the nearby modern street
    • identity uncertain
      • might be a Sebasteion
        • building for the cult of Roman emperors
  7. Pantheon
    • exact location not known
  8. Fethiye Mosque
    • built in 1456