Photo of the Horologion, ca. 1850 - 1880

  • Vitruvius (1st century B. C. Roman architectural writer) says that the Macedonian astronomer Andronikos of Kyrrhos (or Cyrrhestes) oversaw the construction of the horologion in Athens
    • built ca. 100 - 50 B. C.

  • made of pentelic marble

  • octagonal in structure: interior is Doric; exterior is Corinthian

  • the tower housed sundials and mechanized clocks, including a klepsydra (water clock) powered by water from the Acropolis
    • inside there were also mechanisms for displaying the seasons of the year as well as astrological dates and periods

  • on the eight sides of the building are reliefs of the eight winds (each representing a direction from which a breeze can come)

  • on top was a figure, like a weather vane, that showed the wind direction


  • the Greek Archaeological Society excavated the tower in the years 1837 - 1845

Entrance of the Horologion
(drawing by Edward Dodwell, 1821)

Drawing of the Horologion

Interior of the Horologion
(drawing by Edward Dodwell, 1821)

drawing by Martinus Christian Wedseltoft Rorbye , 1839

Interior of Horologion
with doorway to cylindrical water tower at left
from Joseph V. Noble and Derek J. de Solla Price,
“The Water Clock in the Tower of the Winds,”
American Journal of Archaeology, 72 (1968) 345-355
Greek Commemorative Stamps Depicting the ‘Wind’ Reliefs on the Horologion